Résultats de la COP 21 : discours de Serge Tomasi
Lors du séminaire organisé par le Secrétariat de la convention internationale sur la protection des plantes au siège de la FAO à Rome le 27 janvier 2016, l’ambassadeur Serge Tomasi est revenu sur les résultats de la 21ème conférence des parties à la convention cadre des Nations unies sur le changement climatique (COP 21) et leurs implications sur l’agriculture.
Retrouvez ci-dessous l’intervention de l’Ambassadeur :
" Good afternoon everyone. Thank to M. Xia and his team for this kind invitation to present the results of the COP 21.
First, I would like to sum up the key points of the Paris agreement, and then I will highlight the elements dealing more specifically with food security and agriculture.
Paris agreement is the first universal agreement on Climate change adopted, based on national contributions provided by 187 countries. It is a great success because this agreement is ambitious, legally binding, inclusive and balanced.
It is an ambitious agreement since it establishes the target of limiting the increase in temperatures to well below 2°C, and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. In concrete terms, this ambition takes the form of a global emissions pathway : peaking of emissions as soon as possible, and emissions neutrality in the second half of the century.
It is a differentiated agreement : for the first time, all countries are committing to a universal agreement, reflecting the commitments of developed countries to reduce their emissions and acknowledging the gradual convergence of developing countries towards such a reduction, taking into account respective national circumstances and capabilities. The principles of common but differentiated responsibilities, as well as climate justice, are endorsed.
It is a balanced agreement, since for the first time, adaptation to the effects of climate change is treated with equal importance to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement sets an overall objective for adaptation, and affirms the need to rebalance finance, especially public funds and grant-based resources.
It is an inclusive agreement highlighting the solidarity among nations : the agreement affirms the obligation to support developing countries in their efforts to reduce emissions and adapt to climate change. The accompanying decision extends until 2025 the commitment of $100 billion per year, which will then serve as a basis for a more ambitious financial target, with a new target to be established by 2025..
Lastly, the agreement establishes an enhanced transparency framework that is universal and flexible, so as to ensure effectiveness over time and build confidence between countries.
II. Second point : The Paris agreement is not a final but a starting point, or a turning point to pave the way for the establishment of a global low carbon economy.
As president Obama said, it is an agreement that “establishes the enduring framework the World needs to solve the climate crisis”.
Indeed, the implementation of the agreement will lead to the creation of mechanisms for raising ambition, providing financial support, and tracking support and effort.
For instance, every country will have to submit a national contribution every five years (or update its contribution), which will need to be increasingly ambitious each time. Contributions will be reviewed every five years, starting in 2023. But a first stocktake on pre-2020 ambition will take place in 2018.
Furthermore, the Parties will need to develop the new transparency framework by 2018. This will be applicable to all, taking into account countries’ capabilities, and will ensure the transparency of mitigation and adaptation efforts and financial support.
The agreement establishes a mechanism to facilitate implementation and promote compliance. It will support States – from a facilitation, rather than punitive, point of view – in implementation and foster fulfilment of national commitments. Its rules of procedure will be established in the next few years, so that it can start operating.
In addition, a lot of implementation decisions of the agreement have to be prepared including an agreed definition of financing for climate or the definition of the precise modalities for the review of stocktaking of the national contributions every 5 years.
To prepare the implementation decisions, an Adhoc working group for the implementation of the Paris Agreement (called APA) will be convened and its first meeting is scheduled on May 2016 in Bonn, Germany.
Firstly, although the question of the link between agriculture and Climate change is very sensitive, it is not overlooked in the Paris agreement.
Indeed, the preamble of the final agreement text, makes specific reference to “the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change”. The preamble also refers to human rights, gender, ecosystems and biodiversity, all issues as you know that are central for our work in FAO.
Moreover, the article 2.1 of the agreement refers to actions for “increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production.
Furthermore, Agriculture is a key component of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (the INDCs). Indeed, some researchers highlighted that agriculture is included in 80 % of the INDCs provided in Paris, and 60 % of national adaptation strategies refers to Agriculture.
Secondly, Agriculture has been integrated into the COP 21 process through the Agenda for action or the Lima-Paris Action Plan. The Agenda for Action has been an important pillar of the COP 21 to mobilize for the first time a large set of actors. Indeed, more than 5 thousands cities, regions, private firms, CSO’s from 180 countries have taken some commitments for action. In Paris, 12 action days with a thematic focus, have been organized.
The action day on agriculture has been organized jointly by the French Ministry of agriculture and FAO. Our objective with this action day was to better integrate Agriculture in the agenda for action and broadly speaking in the COP process.
6 initiatives have been promoted : (1) “4/1000 : soils for food security and climate”. The aim is to improve soils productivity and to reduce gas emission through carbon sequestration (2) “life beef carbon” to reduce carbon emission of livestock, (3) “adaptation for smallholders agriculture program” (an IFAD program), (4) “climate smart and agro-ecology transition in west Africa”, an initiative launched by ECOWAS, (5) “blue growth” initiative (6) “save food for food loss and waste reduction”. The latter two are FAO proposals.
The Paris text confirms the continuation of the Lima-Paris Action agenda and supports the initiatives identified in Paris, but new initiatives from all sectors must emerge and be supported.
To conclude, further efforts are required to sustain the momentum and accelerate the transformation of our economies towards low carbon and resilient societies. In Paris, we agreed on ambitious principles and clear objectives : over the next months, we have to implement the commitments and to operationalize the principles.
To move forward, three important steps are planned over the next months :
On April 22 in the UN headquarters in New York, there will be the high level signature ceremony of the Paris agreement that will enter in force as soon as 55 countries, representing at least 55 % of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions would have ratified the agreement .
On May 2016 in Bonn, we will have the first meeting of the group for the implementation of the Paris agreement (APA
Next November in Marrakech, Morocco, COP 22 will be key to assess and reinforce pre-2020 action, and France is committed to work closely with the incoming Moroccan presidency.
Thank you./. "